archivio notizie

Confronto sull’art. 21 della “Dichiarazione universale dei Diritti Umani e Civili delle Nazioni Unite”.

Tibetan Constitution
29 settembre 2009

Constitution: Charter of the Tibetans in Exile
The Charter of the Tibetans in Exile is the supreme law governing the functions of the CTA. It was drafted by the Constitution Redrafting Committee and referred to the Tibetan Parliament-in-Exile for approval. The parliament, in turn, adopted the Charter on 14 June 1991.

Based on the spirit of the UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the Charter guarantees to all Tibetans equality before the law and enjoyment of rights and freedom without discrimination on the basis of sex, religion, race, language and social origin. It provides for a clear separation of power among the three organs of the administration: judiciary, legislature and executive.

Before the Charter came into being, the Central Tibetan Administration functioned roughly along the lines of the draft democratic constitution for future Tibet, promulgated by His Holiness the Dalai Lama on 10 March 1963.

Tibet in Exile

Population Approximately 145,150 [Approximate world-wide distribution: India 101,242; Nepal 16,313; Bhutan 1,883; and rest of the world 25,712 (The Office of the Planning Commission’s projected population in 2007, based on the annual  percentage growth rate)]
Government Democratic and popularly elected
Head of State His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama
Judiciary Tibetan Supreme Justice Commission
Legislature Tibetan Parliament-in-Exile with 46 members (43 elected directly by the exile population and three nominated by His Holiness the Dalai Lama)
Executive The Kashag (Cabinet) is the apex executive body.  The Kalon Tripa (Executive Chief) is elected  directly by the exile population for a term of five years. Under the Kashag are the main departments of Religion and  Culture, Home, Education, Finance, Security, Information and International Relations, and Health
Major NGOs Tibetan Youth Congress (TYC), Tibetan Women’s Association (TWA), National Democratic Party of Tibet (NDPT), Gu-Chu-Sum Movement
Foreign Missions Based  in  New  Delhi, Kathmandu, New York, London, Geneva, Moscow, Brussels, Canberra, Tokyo, Pretoria and Taipei
Livelihood Agriculture,  agro-industries, carpet weaving and exports, service sector. The winter sweater selling business is the economic mainstay of about 70 percent of the exile population in India
Education Total school enrolment is 85 to 90 percent of the school-aged children in exile

Judiciary: The Tibetan Supreme Justice Commission

His Holiness the Fourteenth Dalai Lama, the spiritual and temporal leader of the Tibetan people, has often guided the Tibetans onto the path of modern, democratic system in order to ensure their short-and long-term benefit and happiness. Accordingly as enshrined in the Charter for the Tibetans in exile passed by the 11th Assembly of Tibetan People’s Deputies (now referred to as the Tibetan Parliament-in-Exile), the Executive, the Legislature and the Judiciary-the three pillars of the democratic government of Tibetan exiles founded on the marriage of the spiritual and political values-were instituted with the separation of equal powers among them.
Judiciary is one of the most important organs of a democratic institution. Whenever an issue of contention arises in the course of the Executive’s implementation of any law enacted by the Legislature, the Judiciary-which is independent of both the Executive and the Legislature-interprets, or makes decisions thereof; thus protecting the rule of law by guaranteeing justice to all and making the whole of the institution of democracy vibrant and meaningful.
The Tibetan Supreme Justice Commission, the highest judicial organ of the Tibetan community in exile, was formally inaugurated, or established, on 11 March 1992 (the seventh day of the first month of the Tibetan Water-Monkey year, 2119) in Gangchen Kyishong, the headquarter of the Central Tibetan Administration (CTA) of His Holiness the Dalai Lama, in Dharamsala, Himachal Pradesh. Since then, it has been performing its responsibilities.

Legislature: The Tibetan Parliament-in-Exile

Instituted in 1960, the Tibetan Parliament-in-Exile is the highest legislative organ of the Tibetan refugee community. The creation of this democratically elected body has been one of the major changes that His Holiness the Dalai Lama has brought about in his efforts to introduce a democratic system of administration. The Parliament consists of 46 members. U-Tsang, Do-tod and Do-med, the three traditional provinces of Tibet, elect ten members each, while the four schools of Tibetan Buddhism and the traditional Bon faith elect two members each. Three members are elected by Tibetans in the west: two from Europe and one from North America. In addition, one to three members with distinction in the fields of art, science, literature and community service are nominated directly by His Holiness the Dalai Lama.
The Tibetan Parliament-in-Exile is headed by a Speaker and a Deputy Speaker, who are elected by the members amongst themselves. Any Tibetan who has reached the age of 25 has the right to contest elections to the Parliament. The elections are held every five years and any Tibetan who has reached the age of 18 is entitled to vote.
Sessions of the Parliament are held twice every year, with an interval of six months between the sessions. However, His Holiness can summon special sessions of the Parliament in the case of national emergencies. When the Parliament is not in session, there is a standing committee of twelve members: two members from each province, one member from each religious denomination, and one member who is directly nominated by His Holiness the Dalai Lama.
As representatives of the people, the members of the Parliament undertake periodic tours of Tibetan communities to make an assessment of their overall conditions. On their return from these trips, they bring to the notice of the administration any specific grievances and matters needing attention.
The Tibetan Parliament-in-Exile keeps in touch with people also through Local Parliaments established in 38 major Tibetan communities. The Charter provides for the establishment of a Local Parliament in a community having a population of not less than 160. The Local Parliaments are scaled-down replicas of the Tibetan Parliament-in-Exile. They keep an eye on the activities of their respective settlement/welfare officers. They also make laws for their respective communities according to the latter?s felt-needs. The laws passed by the Local Parliament must be implemented by the respective settlement/welfare officer.

The Kashag(Cabinet)

The Kashag (Cabinet) is the highest executive office of the Central Tibetan Administration of His Holiness the Dalai Lama. Under the guidance of His Holiness the Dalai Lama, the Kashag runs and fulfills all its executive and administrative responsibilities.

In accordance to the Charter of Tibetan Government in Exile, the seven members Kashag, is headed by a Kalon Tripa (Prime Minister). Kalon Tripa is directly elected by exile Tibetan populace. Kalon Tripa, in turn nominates his other seven Kalons and seeks the Parliament’s approval. The term of the Kashag is for five years.Kashag Secretariat

A Secretary (Cabinet Secretary) heads the Kashag Secretariat. The Secretariat provides the Kashag with secretarial and administrative services. All decision made in the Kashag are implemented through the respective departments and concerned offices. The Kashag Secretariat has two sub offices namely: The office of planning Commission and Kashag Contingency section.

Sections of Kashag Secretariat

Kashag Secretariat is divided into six sections

  1. Kashag meeting( Cabinet Meeting) section.
  2. Parliament liaisons and planning supervision Section
  3. Travel Document section
  4. Audit scrutiny and follow up section
  5. Dolgyal affairs scrutiny section
  6. Administrative section.

1. Kashag meeting (Cabinet Meeting) section.

According to the administrative rule the Kashag meets twice in a week. The Cabinet Secretary and his assistant prepares the agenda for every meetings concerning matters of political, social, health and finance on the basis of files received from the different departments and individual petitions for seeking clearance, advice and approval from the Kashag. All discussions and resolutions passed are put in the minutes file and proceedings audio recorded. The decisions made in the Kashag are forwarded to the concerned Departments for implementation.

2. Parliament Liaison and planning supervision section.

This section drafts reply to the queries raised during the Parliament session and that of the Standing Committee of the Parliament. It also co-ordinates in drafting reply from concerned Departments to questions raised in tour reports of members of Parliament. This section assist in drafting official bills of Departments to be tabled in the Parliament session.

3. Travel Document Section.

This section scrutinise all Tibetan applicants seeking to visit abroad as individual, non-governmental meeting, family visit, study, and family re-unification based on exile Tibetan government’s policy of issuing Travel Document sanction.

4. Audit Report scrutiny section.

The section scrutinise the overall audit report of Departments and its branch offices and thereby report any objections to Kashag. After Kashag’s clearance appropriate actions are followed with Audit Office or with concerned departments.

It also gives official tour sanctions put forward by departments and their branch offices after careful study of the Rules and Regulation governing them. The section also handles all interim budget sanction requests and after careful study recommends the same to Standing Committee of Tibetan Parliament, and there after circulates the sanction budget to concerned Departments.

5. Dolgyal affairs scrutiny section

This section keeps record of researched documents related to Dolgyal and updates it from time to time. It researches on any new developments related to Dolgyal and reports it to the Kashag.

6. Administrative section – The Administrative section is further sub divided into 5 sub-sections:

a) Personal Assistant to Kalon Tripa

b) Staff appointment and placement section

c) Accounts section

d) Main office section

e) Sino-Tibet Dialogue (Task force section)

a) Personal Assistant to Kalon Tripa

The personal Assistant brings to the attention of Kalon Tripa daily letters and petitions addressed to him and assist in drafting replies. He keeps daily diary of Kalon Tripa and also prepares the tentative program of official visits of Kalon Tripa and reports it to the Private office of His Holiness the Dalai Lama and sends the copy of tour program for information to the speaker of Tibetan Parliament and concerned Departments.

He reports to the Kalon Tripa all letters by Departments whose charge is temporarily under Kalon Tripa and co-ordinates with regard to its follow-up. He keeps all confidential documents related to Kalon Tripa.

b) Staff appointment and placement section

This section keeps records of all the officials of the Central Tibetan Administration concerning new recruitments, transfers, promotions, leaves and resignations. It recommends application for retirements, extension of retirements, re-appointments, contractual appointments, deputations and all special appointments to the Public Service Commission. It also keeps record of overall sanction posts and does timely up date of record due to staff re-shuffle. It responses to all staff petitions and keeps record of individual staff service profile.

c) Accounts Section

This section keeps recurring, special and earmarked accounts of Cabinet Secretariat and its two sub units namely: The Planning Council and Kashag Contingency section. It also prepares annual draft budget of the office in consultation with Cabinet Secretary and keeps Kashag’s special accounts. It maintains the leave records of all Kalons and staff members including its two sub units. It keeps record of all office inventories and looks after its maintenance and replacements. It also helps in arranging of all the Kashag’s official receptions.

d) Main Office Section

This section handles all incoming and outgoing letters of the office and records in its respective registers. The letters are finally indexed and filed by this section. It maintains all official documents of the office. It also supervises and receives all visitors to Kashag and the office. It handles all incoming and outgoing calls of the office.

Personal Assistant to the Secretary assists him in drafting all letters dictated by him and helps in referring the concerned files and maintaining it.

e) Sino-Tibet Dialogue section

This section keeps record of all documents related to Sino-Tibet dialogue process. It arranges the meetings of Task Force committee members. It compiles and does necessary translations of the documents as per directions from Kalon Tripa.

The Kashag Secretariat’s two sub-sections: -

The office of Planning Commission

This sub-section of the Cabinet Secretariat was established in order to assist the Central Tibetan Administration in formulating the plans of various Departments. It helps in integrating various plans according to human, physical and economic resource development needs in Tibetan community. Although it has a separate office complex with its own staffs, but the accounts and administration is directly handled by the Cabinet Secretariat.

Kashag Contingency Section

This section has three sub units namely: 1) Documenting (History recording) unit, 2) Contingency unit and 3) Ad- hoc placement unit. Documenting (History recording unit) is a permanent unit. It compiles document on Tibetan struggle and reconstruction post 1959 period of Tibetan Government in exile. Contingency unit is normally assigned on special and urgent tasks. Ad hoc placement unit is a unit for interim placements.

Election Commission

Recognizing the Democracy as the best system for ensuring happiness and freedom for the people, there have been movements all over the world to introduce this system of governance. In the case of Tibet, our ancient religious kings convened annual winter and summer congresses to facilitate wider discussions on major policy matters. Thus, we can say that Tibet was not without any historical base for the modern democracy.

Towards the end of imperial rule, in the 17th century, the fifth Dalai Lama founded the Gaden Phodrang government of Tibet with compassion and altruism as the basis of its governance. The successive Dalai Lamas thereafter made single-minded effort to develop a happy and spiritually oriented society. However, the low level of education among the public and other factors prevented the development of Tibetan society up to their visions.

The 13th Dalai Lama, in particular, made attempts to introduce a number of reforms to modernize Tibet. Unfortunately, his effort did not bear fruits. When His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama was a minor, the Tibetan political system deteriorated immensely. In addition, Tibet was invaded from the eastern parts when Tibetan administration town of Chamdo was occupied by the Chinese army. In the face of this, Tibetans from all walks of life requested His Holiness the Dalai Lama to assume temporal and religious power. No sooner the 14th Dalai Lama assumed power at the age of 16, he set out to introduce several basic reforms in Tibet but with little successes. By then Chinese forces began to exert tremendous pressure on Him to comply to their version of reforms.

In 1959, His Holiness the Dalai Lama had to flee to India and decided to create a system in which a popularly elected parliament would be able to exercise people’s power in the exile Tibetan administration. Beginning of 1960 (7th Day of 12th moon in the Earth Hog Year) he addressed the Tibetan people in Bodh Gaya and asked the people to elect their representatives through universal adult suffrage. The elected representatives were duly confirmed as the first member of the Tibetan parliament in exile. On 2nd September 1960 members of the first Tibetan parliament were sworn in. This was the first concrete step toward the democratization of the Tibetan polity.

In 1961 His Holiness the Dalai Lama circulated a draft democratic constitution for future Tibet for suggestions from all the Tibetans in exile communities. The draft was subsequently discussed by an abbreviated meeting for the members of the exile parliament and executive.

On 10th March 1963, His Holiness the Dalai Lama pronounced the Constitution of future Tibet. From then to the time of 10th Tibetan Parliament in Exile, the series of reforms have been initiated as per the constitution in the composition of Tibetan Parliament members and electoral process in order to enhance grassroots level participation in the government. However, despite granting all democratic rights without requiring any struggle by the people, the people’s inability to keep pace with changing time and their low level of education meant that grassroots level participation was not as forthcoming as much as His Holiness would have wished.

His Holiness the Dalai Lama, therefore, decided to push for a dramatic increase in the members of the 11th Tibetan Parliament in Exile which promulgated the exile Charter and as per the provision of the Charter, three autonomous institutional bodies within CTA are instituted to facilitate the complete democratization of the exile polity. This resulted in the establishment of a separate permanent office called ‘Election Commission’. A set of rules and regulations was promulgated by the parliament for the Commission. The Election Commission of Central Tibetan Administration is two-tier institution. The Central Election Commission as the apex body. Under this Commission, there are 65 Local Election Commissions in India, Nepal, Bhutan, Europe, North America, Taiwan, Japan and Australia. The Election Commission’s responsibility is to organize and oversee the election of Tibetan Parliament members with their Speaker and Deputy Speaker, the Executive Chief, Local Assemblies with their Chairpersons and Vice Chairpersons, Head of settlements and their assistants, members of regional Tibetan Freedom Movement and their presidents. If the Central Tibetan Administration decides to seek the people’s opinion on matter of national importance, it is the responsibility of the Election Commission to conduct referendums towards this effect.

The Chief Tibetan Election Commissioner is appointed by His Holiness the Dalai Lama as the head of the state, on the recommendation of a special committee formed for this purpose. During the time of the election of Executive Chief and members of Tibetan Parliament, two Additional Election Commissioners are also appointed by following the same procedure adopted for the appointment of Chief Election Commissioner. The Additional Commissioners have the same power as the Chief Election Commissioner.

  1. The Tibetan Parliament in Exile has 46 members. U-Tsang, Do-toe and Do-med, the three traditional provinces of Tibet, elect 10 members each including two women members for each provinces, while the four schools of Tibetan Buddhism and the traditional Bon faith elect two members each. Three members are elected by Tibetans in the West: two from Europe and one from North America. In addition, His Holiness the Dalai Lama has the discretion to exercise or not to exercise the provision to nominate one to three members. There are several clauses for the election of the Speaker and Deputy Speaker of the Tibetan Parliament in Exile. The Tibetan Parliament members are elected through two rounds of voting, preliminary and final.
  2. Tibetan Election rules and regulations deals with the procedure for electing the Tibetan executive Chief. It says that the Kashag Chair-person shall be directly elected by the exile population, not below the age of 18. This election shall be held without provincial, gender or sectarian discriminations. The person winning the largest number of votes in the final round, it says, will be appointed as Kashag Chair-person by His Holiness the Dalai Lama. The first ever election for the Executive Chief was held on 20th August 2001.
  3. Chapter Seven of the Election rules and regulations deals with the election of the Local Assembly members. The size of Local Assemblies varies according to the population of respective Settlements. There is clear-cut provision, stipulating that the members of the Local Assembly be elected by the respective local Tibetans.
  4. Chapter Eight of the Election rules and regulations deals with the process of electing Heads of settlements and their assistants. At the moments, there are few settlements who have elected their heads. All the other settlements have requested Dharamsala Administration to directly appoint their Heads and their assistants as in the past.
  5. Chapter Nine of the election rules and regulations deals with the process of electing the members of Regional Tibetan Freedom Movements.
    The central and regional election commissions must undertake their responsibilities in time and in accordance with the rules and regulations. The developmental history of Tibetan democracy differs from others. Unlike other countries, where people have had to struggle for democracy, sometimes at the cost of many lives, we Tibetans have had democracy granted on us by our leader. It is important for us to exercise our rights and duties to the fullest extend so that we are able to leave behind a rich, vibrant tradition of democracy for the future generation.

Public Service Commission

In 1949 the People’s Liberation Army of China marched into Tibet’s north eastern provinces of Amdo and Kham and finally in 1959, due to the brutal suppression, His Holiness the Dalai Lama was forced to escape into exile and was followed by the massive exodus of some 80,000 Tibetan refugees into neighbouring countries. Immediately on His arrival in exile in India, His Holiness the Dalai Lama re-established the Tibetan Government in the north Indian hill station of Musoorrie on April 29,1959. In May 1960, the exile government was moved to Dharamsala where various departments were established.

Initially up to the year 1972,the responsibility for the recruitment and appointment etc of CTA civil servants was under the Home and Security department, which was then functioning as one department. Thereafter, with the gradual expansion of Central Tibetan Administration, the Department of Personnel was created under the direct supervision of the Kashag (Cabinet), which is the apex executive body of the Central Tibetan Administration having specific objectives for handling the matters relating to recruitment and appointment of CTA civil servants.

On 10th March 1963, His Holiness the Dalai Lama pronounced the Constitution of future Tibet. From then to the time of 10th Tibetan Parliament in exile, the series of reforms have been initiated as per the constitution in the composition of Tibetan Parliament members and electoral process in order to enhance grassroots level participation in the government. However, despite granting all democratic rights without requiring any struggle by the people, the people’s inability to keep pace with changing time and their low level of education meant that grassroots level participation was not as forthcoming as much as His Holiness would have wished.
His Holiness the Dalai Lama, therefore, decided to push for a dramatic increase in the members of the 11th Tibetan Parliament in exile, which promulgated the exile Charter and as per the provision of the Charter, three autonomous institutional bodies within the CTA are instituted to facilitate the complete democratization of the exile polity. This resulted in the establishment of a separate permanent office called “Public Service Commission” which succeeded the function and responsibility of erstwhile Department of Personnel. A set of rules and regulations was promulgated by the parliament for the Commission.

As per the provision of the Charter for Tibetans-in-Exile, a Chairman and two to four members of the Commission are appointed by His Holiness the Dalai Lama as the head of the State on the recommendation of the Special Committee for a term of five years.

The members of Public Service Commission shall meet as and when it is deemed necessary in addition to its regular meeting which must be convened at least once a month. Every meeting of the Public Service Commission should be attended by a minimum of two-thirds of the total members. The Secretary of the Commission shall provide information and present views on related matters; however at these meetings, the Secretary shall not have the right to vote or make decisions. The office of the Public Service Commission shall implement any resolution passed by the Commission without delay under the supervision of the Chairman.

Under the overall supervision and guidance of the Chairman, the Commission has a permanent office. The appointment for posts for the Secretary and the necessary staff shall be according to the rules and regulations of the Central Tibetan Administrative Services.

The Commission has the competencies on the following broadly defined statutory powers and duties:

  1. Recruitment and appointment/ re-appointment of all the CTA officials and general staff.
  2. All capacity building & promotion related matters.
  3. Retirement related matters.
  4. Handling of disputes related to staff grievances.
  5. Demotions, dismissals, resignation and premature retirement matters.
  6. Framing of code conducts and other related rules in connection with these functions.
  7. On top of these, it has the sole responsibility to recruit talented officers and office staff to efficiently man the CTA offices. For that the Commission regularly organizes trainings and refresher courses for the CTA officials/staffs in order to keep up with rapidly changing work environments.

The existing CTA posts are designated as follows:

  1. Group A-Officers Cadre
    • Secretary
    • Additional Secretary
    • Joint Secretary
    • Deputy Secretary
    • Under Secretary
  2. Group B-Staff Cadre
    • Section Officer
    • Office Superintendent
    • Office Assistant
    • Senior Clerk
    • Junior Clerk/Peons/Drivers
  1. Group A-Officers Cadre
    Out of the total posts for the Under Secretary, sixty (60) percent must be filled by direct recruitment and forty (40) percent by promotion. Thirty (30) percent of the Deputy Secretary and Joint Secretary posts are filled by direct recruitment and deputation and seventy (70) percent are filled by promotion. Out of the total posts allocated for the Additional Secretary and Secretary, five (5) percent must be filled on deputation and the rest must come via promotion.
  2. Group B-Staff Cadre
    Junior Clerk/Peons/Drivers posts are filled by direct recruitment only. For the other four ranks in the staff category, twenty-five (25) percent of the posts are filled by direct recruitment and on deputation and seventy-five (75) percent of the post must cover up via promotions.

Public Service Commission
Dharamsala 2008

Public statement of the KashagPublic statement of the Kashag
29 settembre 2009

22 March 2008
The Kashag would like to issue this statement to the Tibetans – both lay and ecclesiastical – living here in Dharamsala, and through all of you, to the larger Tibetan population in and outside Tibet.

Recognition of the situation inside Tibet

  1. The recent peaceful uprising in Tibet is not only powerful, but also great and of historical significance. It symbolises the Tibetan people’s indomitable courage and inner strength.
  2. The uprising is not just confined to Lhasa and its neighbouring areas. It has spread to all regions where Tibetans reside, including the three traditional provinces of Tibet: U-tsang, Amdo and Kham. What does this indicate? Firstly, it clearly shows that all Tibetans have the same aspirations and are united under the great leadership of His Holiness the Dalai Lama. Secondly, it has brought before the world the reality inside Tibet by exposing the Chinese propaganda that “apart from the few upper strata followers of the reactionary Dalai, all Tibetans in Tibet are loyal to the ideology and polity of the People’s Republic of China (PRC)” and that “Tibet has entered into a period of great stability, with its people being fully satisfied with the economic and social progress it has achieved”.
  3. It further shows that His Holiness’ viewpoint that all Tibetans, including those living in the three traditional provinces of Tibet, should be brought under a single autonomous governance is in tune with the reality.
  4. The leaders of the People’s Republic of China have said that they will wage a “life and death” struggle against, or resolutely crush, the on-going demonstrations in Tibet. This statement has brought to the fore the internal matter that the Chinese leaders view the Tibetans as enemies, rather than being a part of the big family of the Chinese nation.
  5. The recent heroic uprising, which has spread to virtually all parts of Tibet, is larger in scale than all the uprisings that have taken place during the past 49 years. Whether we look at it from the perspective of an international issue or a domestic issue, these demonstrations have brought our struggle to a point where a decision has to be made concerning the survival of the Tibetan people. Moreover the principal force behind these activities are the fourth generation Tibetans – those Tibetans who are born after the Chinese assumed rule over our country. These are a clear indication that our movement will continue for generations.
  6. The recent incidents have made it amply clear how much determination and sincerity the Tibetan people have and the great sacrifices they made. While expressing our immense pride in and appreciation for this, the Kashag would like to state that it does not have the faintest doubt that their sacrifices will be etched on the annals of the Tibetan people in golden ink.

What the Central Tibetan Administration has done thus far

  1. Needless to mention that the Tibetan exiles should recognise the great courage displayed by our brethren in Tibet and initiate solidarity actions, which will go a long way in promoting the short- and long-term benefits of the cause of the Tibetan people. Therefore a high-level committee has been set up under the leadership of the Tibetan Parliament-in-Exile (TPiE), which has – instead of letting the Tibetans to carry out individual activities – tried to combine all the initiatives of the Tibetan Diasporic community to give it a collective force. This is, in the history of the Tibetan Diaspora, a new approach to deal with a crisis situation. We are hopeful that the Tibetan NGOs, autonomous bodies and welfare organisations, as well as the local people will all follow the direction of this committee.
  2. Since the repression began in Tibet, His Holiness the Dalai Lama has continued to make his best efforts, despite his slight indisposition, to reach out to as many people as possible. As well as writing to many like-minded (political) world leaders, fellow Nobel laureates and other eminent persons, His Holiness has given frequent interviews to the media and appealed to the governments and peoples across the globe. In addition to this, His Holiness has advised us to recite the prayers of Dolma and Sher-nying, as well as the Tadrin mantra to avert the present crisis situation and to work towards the enhancement of the Tibetan people’s collective merit. Moreover, His Holiness has graciously presided over the prayer congregation held at the main temple of the Thekchen Choeling monastery for the Tibetans in Tibet.

As for the Tibetan administration, we have been performing our duties properly by providing timely information to the governmental and non-governmental organisations as well as the Tibet support groups and requesting them for their support through the offices of Tibet abroad. Apart from expressing our heart-felt thanks to high-ranking leaders of many eastern and western countries, including the US and the EU countries; the United Nations Secretary General; political parties; social service organisations; Tibet support groups and the spiritual heads of various religious denominations for issuing their statements of support, the Kashag has also been emphatically urging them to continue to give their effective support to us until the eventual resolution of the issue of Tibet.

Appeal for future action

  1. Currently, our urgent appeal to the international community comprises of the following main items:
  2. Stop immediately the repression taking place all over Tibet, as well as the killings and beatings accompanying it;
  3. Release immediately all those arrested and imprisoned during such instances of protest demonstrations;
  4. All those injured should be provided medical care. Lift the imposition of restrictions on all travellers who are held up in different places and adequate food supplies should be provided to them;
  5. An independent international fact-find delegation and impartial reporters should be allowed to go all over Tibet without any restriction.To channel our collective energies to put forward these demands is the need of the hour.
  6. The People’s Republic of China (PRC) has planted a large number of spies within the Tibetan communities in and outside Tibet, who have been undertaking massive campaigns to drive a wedge between the Tibetan people, between the Tibetans and Chinese and between the Tibetans and the people of the respective host countries they live in. Thus the other side is hoping to destroy the unity, or oneness, of the Tibetan people and the effectiveness of their movement. Being mindful of these mischievous lots, all Tibetans should exercise utmost caution.The bases of the Tibetan exiles’ movement are the respective host countries we live in. India, in particular, is the residence of His Holiness the Dalai Lama and the seat of the Central Tibetan Administration (CTA). Therefore whenever we initiate any activity big or small, we must be careful in seeing to it that our actions do not go against the laws of the respective host countries, or cause undue embarrassment and discomfort to the people living in these countries. Besides we must realise that it is our strength, rather than weakness, to keep the means we employ within the rubric of the principle of non-violence. Since the Chinese side has misrepresented the recent incidents as a clash between the Tibetan and Chinese peoples and between different religions, we should not be tardy in providing timely and proper responses to these misinformation.
  7. Apart from undertaking political activities, all Tibetans should also make efforts from the religious side to enhance their collective merit by engaging themselves in good-karmic deeds. We should, in particular, follow the advice of His Holiness the Dalai Lama by reciting the prayers of Dolma, Sher-nying, Yig-drug and Gurui Thug-dam Ne-kul and dedicate the merits gained for the immediate ending of the repression in Tibet; for the rebirth of all those who have lost their lives in the “taming ground” of Avalokitesvara, the Snowland of Tibet and be able to serve the Tibetan people; for the speedy recovery of all those injured people; and for the eventual resolution of the Tibet issue so that the Tibetans in and outside Tibet can join together in a celebration of their reunion.
  8. It is difficult to predict where the present crisis situation inside Tibet will lead to in the future. It is possible that we may have to initiate campaigns for a long time inside and outside Tibet. It is also possible that we may have to come out with a considerable number of relief activities. Therefore, as stated in the Kashag’s appeal on the last birthday celebration of His Holiness the Dalai Lama, all Tibetan exiles – be it rich or poor – should observe austerity as much as possible by shunning extravagance of any kind, including unbridled consumerism, and set aside a portion of their income for community activities.
  9. Finally, an extremely important matter is that there is no greater prospects for the Tibetan people than what His Holiness has, relying on his profound wisdom, advised to us. In a crisis situation like this, we should be able to whole-heartedly follow the guidance provided by him. On the contrary, if we pretend to have a better approach than what His Holiness has already shown to us and thus undermine the unity of the small number of Tibetan exiles, then this will only make our enemies happy and disappoint our friends.

The Kashag is greatly disappointed by some of the recently initiated campaigns. Even though we hope that there is nothing wrong in the sincerity of those who initiated these campaigns, but the way they were conducted seems to indicate the organiser’s deliberate attempts to bring bad name and difficulties to His Holiness the Dalai Lama. This, we consider, is not at all helpful to the cause of Tibet.

Issued by the Kashag

N.B. Translated from the Tibetan

Kashag Statement on August 30, 2008
29 settembre 2009

Statement of the Kashag on the occasion of worldwide fasting and prayer service on 30 August 2008

Today on 30 August 2008, the last day of the sixth month of Earth-Mouse Year in Tibetan Calender, Tibetan Solidarity Committee appealed the Tibetans, Tibet supporters and peace loving people all over the world to observe a symbolic fasting and prayer service for 12 hours. We are immensely fortunate and grateful that His Holiness the Dalai Lama has consented to take part in person here, but due to a slight indisposition this could not happen. However, His Holiness is observing the fasting and prayer from Mumbai today and we convey our immense gratitude and respect to him.

The Kashag of the central Tibetan Administration would like to heartily thank all the Tibetans, Tibet supporters and those believing in non-violence who are taking part to observe this symbolic fasting and prayer service.

This activity is not a protest led by hatred, rancour and anger but by the teachings of the Lord Buddha in all the vehicles to refrain from harming others and do everything to benefit others with love and compassion, which is the essence of spiritual practice. Mahatma Gandhi has shown us with his practical demonstration that this is only for spiritual practice but it can very well apply to the politics for the benefits of society and nations. Our effort of today symbolizes that this method is effectively relevant in the post-modern world also.

Due to the consistent effort and guidance of His Holiness the Dalai Lama to pursue non-violent methods to resolve the Tibetan issue, it has been many years that most of the Tibetan movements remained free from gross physical violence. This garnered immense support from around the world for the just cause of Tibet. Our pursuit of non-violence has not only enabled us to keep alive the Tibetan issue but also compelled the People’s Republic of China to respond to our policy of rapprochement irrespective of their sincerity. However, on account of some Tibetans being not able to completely give up violence in vocal expressions and thoughts, all our efforts till today instead of achieving a genuine result, is stuck in a vicious circle. If all the Tibetans have a genuine aspiration to resolve the just cause of the Tibetan issue, we have to strengthen our commitment and reinforce the power of non-violence. It is hard to achieve any results in resolving the Tibetan cause unless anger of the Tibetans subsides. Therefore, we take this opportunity to strongly appeal to all the Tibetans and particularly to the monks and nuns to get rid of any visible hatred and anger, and make every effort to develop undiluted thought leading to the cultivation of non-violence and thereby all our physical and vocal expressions become non-violent.

By observing this symbolic fasting and prayer service if we Tibetans are able to make way to advance a step further in pursuit of our non-violent movement, it is worth observing. Otherwise, if it turns into an opportunity that arouses feelings of hatred and anger, it is then, as the saying goes, “sending ransom to the west when the demon lies in the east”.

On this special occasion, we hope that the observation of fasting and prayer by numerous people around the world will help the Tibetans to do away their bad karmic action and enhance meritorious virtues. This virtue may help Tibetans to get rid of their anger and hatred towards all sentient beings, especially the PRC authorities who oppress and torture the Tibetans and instead could help us to respond to them with love and compassion. Our
sincere practice of non-violence will ultimately help change the mind of the PRC authorities to more compassionate. We hope and pray that all will firmly believe in non-violence. We strongly appeal to all the Tibetans to put concerted non-violent efforts to bring natural end to the torture and persecution in Tibet.

We pay our condolence and homage to those who lost their lives and those who are imprisoned ,tortured and beaten in the recent uprisings in Tibet. We pray that the lives sacrificed by the Tibetans become worthwhile and end the torture to the innocent Tibetans .We also pray and sympathise for the victims of the earthquakes in Sichuan and the one in South-western Tibet recently and the disaster caused by flood in some other part as well.

We end with the prayers for His Holiness the Dalai Lama’s long life and may the just cause of Tibet prevail.

The Kashag

30 August 2008

Central Tibetan Administration Background
29 settembre 2009

In 1949 the People’s Liberation Army of China marched into Tibet’s eastern provinces of Kham and Amdo, seizing control over the eastern Tibetan headquarters of Chamdo in the following year. Then in 1951, the so-called “17-Point Agreement on Measures for the Peaceful Liberation of Tibet” was forced upon the Tibetan government and people. In the succeeding years, the Chinese army advanced further west and eventually crushed the Tibetan national uprising of Lhasa in 1959. This led to the flight of His Holiness the Dalai Lama and some 80,000 Tibetans who sought refuge in India, Nepal and Bhutan. The influx of refugees continues even today. Currently, the Tibetan exile population is over 140,000, of which about 100,000 are based in India.

On 29 April 1959, His Holiness the Dalai Lama established the Tibetan exile administration in the north Indian hill station of Mussoorie. Named the Central Tibetan Administration (CTA) of His Holiness the Dalai Lama, this is the continuation of the government of independent Tibet. In May 1960, the CTA was moved to Dharamsala.

The Tibetan people, both in and outside Tibet, look to the CTA as their sole and legitimate representative. This and the administration’s commitment to truth, non-violence and genuine democracy as its inviolable principles mean that it is now being recognised increasingly by parliaments and general public round the world as the legitimate and true representative of the Tibetan people.

Right from its inception, the CTA has set itself the twin task of rehabilitating Tibetan refugees and restoring freedom and happiness in Tibet. The rehabilitation agenda includes three important programmes: a) promoting education among the exile population; b) building a firm culture of democracy; and c) paving the way for self-reliance so that the Tibetan people are able to survive with the self-esteem and confidence that flows from not having to depend on external assistance.

The CTA’s experiment with modern democracy, in particular, is a preparation for the reconstruction of Tibet when freedom is restored there. As part of this exercise, a parliament, then named the Commission of Tibetan People’s Deputies, was instituted on 2 September 1960. The parliament gradually matured into a full-fledged legislative body, thus coming to be known as the Assembly of Tibetan People’s Deputies (ATPD). Then in 2006, its name was changed to the Tibetan Parliament-in-Exile (TPiE).

In 1990 His Holiness the Dalai Lama announced further democratisation, by which the composition of the Tibetan Parliament-in-Exile was increased to 46 members. The parliament was empowered to elect the members of the Kashag or the Council of Ministers, which was made answerable to the people’s elected representatives. Similarly, the Tibetan judiciary, known as the Tibetan Supreme Justice Commission, was instituted in 1992 under the provisions of the Arbitration Act of the government of India.

The newly empowered Tibetan parliament issued the exile Tibetan constitution under the title of The Charter of the Tibetans in Exile.

In 2001 the Tibetan parliament, on the advice of His Holiness the Dalai Lama, amended the Charter to provide for direct election of the Kalon Tripa (the highest executive authority) by the exile populace. The Kalon Tripa, in turn, nominates the other Kalons (cabinet members), and seeks the parliament’s approval for their appointment. The first directly-elected Kalon Tripa — Professor Samdhong Rinpoche Lobsang Tenzin — took the oath of office on 5 September 2001. He was elected to the post of Kalon Tripa for the second time in August 2006.

Today, the CTA has all the departments and attributes of a free democratic administration. It must be noted, though, that the CTA is not designed to take power in Tibet. In his manifesto for future Tibet, entitled the Guidelines for Future Tibet’s Polity and Basic Features of its Constitution, His Holiness the Dalai Lama stated that the present exile administration would be dissolved as soon as freedom is restored in Tibet. The Tibetans currently residing in Tibet, he said, would head the government of free Tibet, not by the members of the exile administration. He said that there would be a transitional government in Tibet which would be headed by an Interim-President, elected or appointed by him. To this Interim-President His Holiness would transfer all his temporal power. The Interim-President, in his turn, would be required to hold a general election within two years and then hand over the power to the popularly-elected government.

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